Aristotle , Greek Aristoteles , (born 384 bce , Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece—died 322, Chalcis, Euboea), ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the intellectual revolutions of the Renaissance , the Reformation , and the Enlightenment , Aristotelian concepts remained embedded in Western thinking.

This article deals with Aristotle’s life and thought. For the later development of Aristotelian philosophy, see Aristotelianism . For treatment of Aristotelianism in the full context of Western philosophy, see philosophy, Western .

partly employing Pythagorean ideas. After Plato’s death, the Academy continued to exist for many centuries under various heads. When Plato’s nephew, Speusippus (died c. 338 bc ), was elected as his successor, Plato’s greatest disciple, Aristotle (384–322 bc ), left for Assus, a Greek city-state in Anatolia, and then went…

This article gives an overview of Socrates: who he was, what he thought, and his purported method.  It is both historical and philosophical.  At the same time, it contains reflections on the difficult nature of knowing anything about a person who never committed any of his ideas to the written word.  Much of what is known about Socrates comes to us from Plato, although Socrates appears in the works of other ancient writers as well as those who follow Plato in the history of philosophy.  This article recognizes that finding the original Socrates may be impossible, but it attempts to achieve a close approximation.

Socrates was born in Athens in the year 469 B.C.E. to Sophroniscus, a stonemason, and Phaenarete, a midwife.  His family was not extremely poor, but they were by no means wealthy, and Socrates could not claim that he was of noble birth like Plato.  He grew up in the political deme or district of Alopece, and when he turned 18, began to perform the typical political duties required of Athenian males.  These included compulsory military service and membership in the Assembly, the governing body responsible for determining military strategy and legislation.

Socrates fought valiantly during his time in the Athenian military.  Just before the Peloponnesian War with Sparta began in 431 B.C.E, he helped the Athenians win the battle of Potidaea (432 B.C.E.), after which he saved the life of Alcibiades, the famous Athenian general.  He also fought as one of 7,000 hoplites aside 20,000 troops at the battle of Delium (424 B.C.E.) and once more at the battle of Amphipolis (422 B.C.E.).  Both battles were defeats for Athens.

Aristotle , Greek Aristoteles , (born 384 bce , Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece—died 322, Chalcis, Euboea), ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the intellectual revolutions of the Renaissance , the Reformation , and the Enlightenment , Aristotelian concepts remained embedded in Western thinking.

This article deals with Aristotle’s life and thought. For the later development of Aristotelian philosophy, see Aristotelianism . For treatment of Aristotelianism in the full context of Western philosophy, see philosophy, Western .

partly employing Pythagorean ideas. After Plato’s death, the Academy continued to exist for many centuries under various heads. When Plato’s nephew, Speusippus (died c. 338 bc ), was elected as his successor, Plato’s greatest disciple, Aristotle (384–322 bc ), left for Assus, a Greek city-state in Anatolia, and then went…

Aristotle | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy


The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle

Posted by 2018 article